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A Unique Dinosaur

Scientists found a really cool dinosaur with wings. It's true! This special dinosaur lived about 168 million years ago during the Middle Jurassic period on the Isle of Skye in Scotland.

Meet Sioptera ivansae

This winged dinosaur is called Sioptera ivansae. It belongs to a group of flying reptiles called pterosaurs, which were also found in China. The name Sioptera comes from the Scottish Gaelic word Cheo, meaning fog, and the Latin word ptera, meaning wing. The second part of its name, ivansae, is named after a British paleontologist named Professor Susan E. Evans.

The Exciting Discovery

In 2006, paleontologists found the fossil remains of Sioptera ivansae during a field trip to a village called Elgol on the Isle of Skye. They spent years preparing the sample and scanning the bones, some of which were still stuck in rocks.

What We Learned

Even though the skeleton is not complete, the researchers say it gives us important information about the history and diversity of pterosaurs. The findings, published in the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, suggest that pterosaurs like Sioptera lived for more than 25 million years and were more diverse than we thought.

A Surprise in the UK

Professor Paul Barrett from the Natural History Museum said that finding Sioptera in the Middle Jurassic period in the UK was a big surprise. Most of its relatives were found in China. This means that this group of flying reptiles appeared earlier than we thought and spread all over the world.

A Special Site

The fossil was found in a place called Elgol, which is a Site of Special Scientific Interest. The researchers could only collect samples from rocks that had fallen onto the beach. While they were examining these fossils, they noticed a few more bones that turned out to be the new pterosaur.

Why It Matters

Dr. Liz Martin-Silverstone, a paleontologist from the University of Bristol, said that the time period to which Sioptera belongs is really important for understanding pterosaurs. Finding more bones buried in the rocks helps us learn more about how these amazing creatures evolved.

About Pterosaurs

Pterosaurs are flying reptiles that lived alongside dinosaurs from about 225 to 65.5 million years ago. There are over 100 known species of pterosaurs, and they were predators. They are the oldest vertebrates capable of flight. Their wings were made of a thin but strong skin membrane, and they had long jaws and tails.

Source: British press


 Farmer protests s have erupted as a result of various factors including the implementation of strict agricultural policies, unfair trade practices, and competition from large-scale industrial farming. Farmers are fed up with being overregulated and squeezed financially while multinational companies continue to dominate the market.

They are demanding fairer prices for their products, government support for small-scale agriculture, and a more sustainable approach to farming.

The results have been awe-inspiring as these passionate farmers are making their voices heard loud and clear. They are successfully creating awareness about the challenges they face and pushing for much-needed change in agricultural policies.

By fighting relentlessly, they are ensuring that their concerns reach the highest levels of decision-making and hopefully lead to a revitalization of Europe's farming industry. 

Why protest?

  • Economic pressures: The costs of energy, fertilizer, and transportation have been going up because of the war in Ukraine and global inflation. This means that farmers are making less money.
  • Unfair competition: Farmers feel like they're being undercut by cheaper imports from outside the European Union (EU) and by big retailers within the EU.
  • Environmental regulations: Some farmers think that the rules about protecting the environment are too strict and expensive for them to follow.
  • Bureaucracy: Many farmers are frustrated with all the paperwork and administrative hurdles they have to deal with.
  • Discontent with EU agricultural policy: Some farmers believe that the Common Agricultural Policy, which is a set of rules for farming in the EU, favors big farms and doesn't listen to their concerns.

Where are the Protests Happening?

The protests have been happening all over Europe, but there are a few places where they've been especially active:

  • France: Farmers in France are worried about competition, bans on certain pesticides, and too much bureaucracy.
  • Germany: In Germany, farmers are protesting because the government is phasing out tax breaks on diesel fuel.
  • Netherlands: Farmers in the Netherlands are against plans to reduce nitrogen emissions.
  • Poland: Polish farmers are angry about rising costs and unfair competition.
  • Other countries: There have also been protests in Italy, Spain, Greece, Romania, Lithuania, and Belgium.

How are Governments Responding?

  • The governments in different countries have been responding to the protests in different ways:
  • Offering concessions: Some governments, like Greece and France, have given financial aid or changed their policies to address specific concerns.
  • Dialogue and negotiation: Many governments are talking to farmers' unions to try and find solutions.
  • Limited action: However, some governments haven't made big changes, which has led to the protests continuing.

What Could Happen Next?

It's hard to say what will happen in the end, but a few things could affect the outcome:

  • Government response: If governments take farmers' concerns seriously and make changes, it could help resolve the issues.
  • Economic and political conditions: The situation could change depending on how the economy and politics develop.
  • Farmer mobilization and public support: If farmers continue to protest and gain support from the public, it could put more pressure on the governments to act.

So, that's what's been going on with the farmer protests in Europe. It's a complicated situation, but it's important to understand why people are protesting and what they hope to achieve.


A new American strategy for dealing with the Afghan government formed by the Taliban was announced. This strategy was announced after the US troops left Afghanistan in 2021. It's important to understand what this means for the people of Afghanistan and the relationship between the United States and the Taliban.

 Four Important Areas

The new strategy focuses on four important areas:

  1. Anti-terrorism

It is said that the United States wants to make sure that Afghanistan doesn't become a safe haven for terrorists! 

  1. Economic Assistance

The US also says that they want to help Afghanistan's economy! They want to provide support and resources to help the country grow and develop!

  1. Consular Services

American citizens who are currently in Afghanistan need help and support. The US wants to make sure they have access to consular services, which means assistance with things like passports and visas.

  1. Immigration

There are many Afghans who want to immigrate to the United States. The US wants to help them and make the immigration process easier for them. They also want to protect the rights of Afghan people, especially women and girls.

What Experts Say

Experts have different opinions about this new strategy. Some believe that it will be easier for the United States to help Afghans who want to seek asylum in the US. There are many Afghans who have worked with American forces and want to move to the US, but they face slow procedures. The return of the American consulate to Kabul could improve their situation.

Others think that the US wants to maintain its interests in Afghanistan without using military force. They want a peaceful solution and the full implementation of the Doha Agreement between the US and the Taliban.

Goals and Challenges

The US sees ISIS-Khorasan as a threat to Afghanistan's security and stability. They also believe that China, Russia, and Iran are trying to take advantage of the US withdrawal from Afghanistan. The US wants to protect its interests and put pressure on the Taliban.

However, there are challenges. Opening a consulate in Kabul without recognizing the Afghan government is a big step. Some experts think that it might not happen until after the US presidential elections. The US also wants to make sure that the security situation in Afghanistan is stable before sending diplomats back.

The new American strategy for Afghanistan is complex and has different veiled and unveiled goals. The US wants to protect its interests, help the Afghan people! and prevent the so-called terrorism. It's important to keep an eye on how this strategy unfolds and what it means for both Afghanistan and the US.


An Unprecedented Challenge

Kuwait is currently facing an exceptional and serious challenge, according to the government's new work program. The country heavily relies on oil as its main source of income, and the fluctuation of oil prices poses a significant threat to its public finances.

The Consequences

This challenge not only jeopardizes the ability to provide a decent life for citizens and meet their basic needs but also puts Kuwait at risk of failing to fulfill its local and international obligations.

Diversifying the Economy

Kuwait, which currently relies on oil revenues to finance 90% of its general budget, recognizes the need to reduce its dependence on oil. The government is actively seeking to diversify its economy and find alternative sources of financing.

Past Efforts and Future Plans

Previous attempts to diversify the economy have not been very successful, unlike some other Gulf countries that have achieved varying degrees of success. However, Kuwait remains determined to find a solution.

The Expected Deficit

Without implementing economic and financial reforms, the state's general budget is projected to face a deficit ranging between 45 and 60 billion dinars ($146.13 to 194.84 billion) over the next five years. Additionally, government financing requirements are expected to double in the next decade, with an estimated public budget deficit of 13 billion dinars ($42.23 billion) in 2033.

The Importance of Oil Prices

According to the government's program, financing the general budget would require high oil prices of $100 per barrel. If the financial and economic conditions continue to deteriorate, it could lead to individuals, companies, and banks struggling, unemployment rates rising significantly, social services collapsing, and social security deteriorating.

Government Initiatives

To address these challenges, the government plans to pass laws related to liquidity tools, business profits tax, and selective tax during the current legislative term. Additionally, a feasibility study for a railway link project with Saudi Arabia will be initiated within the next 100 days.

Source: Reuters



Hamas Responds to the Agreement Proposal

On the 123rd day of the Israeli aggression on Gaza, Hamas announced that it has given its response to the proposed exchange deal. The Qatari Prime Minister described the response as positive, and the US Secretary of State will discuss it with the Israeli government.

Escalation in the Red Sea

The Houthis, a group supporting the Palestinians in Gaza, carried out attacks on two ships in the Red Sea. One ship was damaged, and this action was seen as a response to the American-British aggression against their country.

Blinken is in the Region Again

US Secretary of State Anthony Blinken is currently touring the region to discuss the war in Gaza. He has met with Egyptian President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi and will also visit Israel to discuss hostage release negotiations and plans for post-war Gaza.

Refusal to Return to Gaza Strip

The settlers in the Gaza envelope settlements will not return to their homes until they are assured of full security. They expect Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu to work transparently with them to ensure a safe return.

Detainees in the West Bank

The occupation forces have arrested over 6,800 people in the West Bank since October 7. The detainees and their families have been subjected to attacks and severe beatings.

Mutual Bombing in Southern Lebanon

The Israeli occupation forces bombed several towns in southern Lebanon, while sirens sounded in Israeli areas after missiles were launched from Lebanon. Lebanese Hezbollah targeted Israeli military barracks and soldiers, causing direct hits.

The Number of Martyrs Rises

The Palestinian Ministry of Health in Gaza reported that the toll from the Israeli war on the Strip has risen to over 27,500 martyrs and 66,900 injured. The ministry also mentioned that the Israeli occupation committed 12 massacres against families in the past 24 hours.

The Siege of Nasser Hospital Continues

The Nasser Medical Complex in Khan Yunis is facing a shortage of food, surgical supplies, and fuel for the generators. The occupation is preventing the movement of ambulances, putting the lives of medical personnel, wounded individuals, and displaced people at risk.

For his part, the director of the Nasser Complex Surgery Hospital, Nahed Abu Taima, told Al Jazeera that the occupation forces are continuing heavy gunfire around the complex, adding that since the siege of the hospital about two weeks ago, 630 wounded have arrived, most of them seriously injured.

He explained that they are facing major and dangerous challenges, including a shortage of medical personnel and a severe shortage of fuel, which puts the lives of patients and injured at risk.

Source: Al Jazeera


Science and Technology

An Existential Threat

The war in Sudan is causing concerns about the loss of thousands of diverse plant genetic strains for food and agriculture. The Genetic Resources Bank, also known as the Gene Bank, is being targeted, which could have serious consequences for agricultural biodiversity in Sudan.

The Importance of the Gene Bank

The Gene Bank, established in 1982, is a research center that preserves and maintains seed samples of over 15,000 accessions collected from various regions of Sudan. These samples include local, traditional, and ancient types of crops, as well as wild relatives of agricultural plants like corn, millet, sesame, peanuts, and more.

The Extent of the Damage

The Gene Bank has suffered significant damage due to the war. Refrigerators storing seed samples were looted, and the seeds were found scattered. The lack of optimal environmental conditions for their maintenance puts them at risk of deterioration and damage.

The Importance of Preserving Genetic Resources

Genetic resources are crucial for scientific research, breeding programs, and the development of resilient crops. They play a vital role in achieving food and nutritional security, environmental sustainability, and providing various resources for humans, such as shelter, medicine, clothing, and energy.

Future Risks and Urgent Plan

The loss of genetic resources from the Gene Bank could have a real impact on food security, especially in the face of future risks like climate change. To save the plant genetic resources, an urgent plan is needed. This plan involves temporarily transporting the samples to a safer place within Sudan, ensuring the necessary requirements for their preservation, and eventually sending them to the Svalbard Global Seed Vault in Norway for long-term storage.

It is crucial to support the transfer of the remaining seeds to safe areas and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault to protect Sudan's scientific infrastructure and ensure the availability of diverse and resilient crops for the future.


American Strikes Might Not Be the Solution

The Wall Street Journal recently reported that the airstrikes carried out by American forces on pro-Iranian armed groups in the Middle East might not be the best way to calm tensions in the region. Instead, an agreement to stop the fighting between Hamas and Israel could be more effective.

Why the Airstrikes Won't Stop Attacks

The American retaliatory strikes were a response to the killing of three American soldiers by Iranian-backed groups in Syria and Iraq. However, experts believe that these strikes are unlikely to prevent further attacks on American and Israeli interests. To truly stop these attacks, a ceasefire in the Gaza Strip is necessary.

American Strikes and Their Targets

Early on Saturday morning, American forces launched strikes on sites belonging to the Iranian Revolutionary Guard and the Quds Force in Syria and Iraq. The strikes were carried out by aircraft launched from the United States, using precision-guided missiles. The targeted facilities included command centers, control centers, espionage centers, and storage sites for missiles and drones.

The Reason Behind the Conflict

The Wall Street Journal attributes the conflict between the United States and factions allied with Iran to the war launched by Israel in the Gaza Strip. This conflict has led to a sharp escalation in attacks on US forces in Iraq and Syria.

Other Groups Involved

In addition to the conflict in Gaza, Lebanese Hezbollah has also engaged in an exchange of fire on Israel's northern border. The Iranian-backed Houthis have launched attacks that have affected international shipping traffic in the Red Sea, leading to US airstrikes in Yemen. Both groups have stated that they will not stop fighting until Israel stops its aggression against Gaza.

Pressure on the US Administration

The war in Gaza has put pressure on the administration of US President Joe Biden to achieve a ceasefire and the release of Israeli prisoners held by Hamas. The United States is proposing a six-week halt to the war to allow hostages to leave and pave the way for a more sustainable peace. However, there are obstacles preventing both sides from agreeing to the deal, including internal divisions in Israel.

Source: Wall Street Journal



Thousands Protest in Support of Gaza

There were these really big demonstrations in Europe recently. People came out in huge numbers to show their support for Gaza and to demand that the war there stops. Can you believe it? This has been going on for 121 days already!

London and Vienna

In London, thousands of people gathered to demand an immediate ceasefire in Gaza. Over in Vienna, there was a silent march to show support for Gaza too. It's amazing to see so many people coming together for a cause.

Strasbourg and Germany

Now, in Strasbourg, France, people carried torches and marched in solidarity with Gaza. They held banners calling for an end to the war and condemning the crimes committed by Israel. In Germany, several cities saw large demonstrations too. People were showing their support for Gaza and speaking out against Germany's support for the Israeli government.

Cologne and International Support

In Cologne, people gathered in front of a historic cathedral with the slogan "Freedom for Palestine." They were really upset about the Israeli attacks on Gaza and wanted to raise awareness about it. Not just Palestinians, but also Turkish and German citizens, and people from other countries, joined in the demonstration. It's great to see people from all over the world standing up for what they believe in.

Geneva and Istanbul

Over in Geneva, Switzerland, a pro-Palestinian demonstration took place. The demonstrators called for the protection of the Palestinian people, an immediate end to the aggression against Gaza, and holding the occupation accountable for its attacks on civilians. In Istanbul, Turkey, dozens of people marched to protest the Israeli attacks. They chanted slogans and demanded that the children of Gaza be protected.

Other European Cities

But wait, there's more! The cities of Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Italy also had massive marches. People there demanded an end to the war, accountability for the occupation's crimes, the lifting of the siege on Gaza, and the delivery of humanitarian aid to the Palestinians. It's heartwarming to see so many people coming together to support a just cause.

Source: agencies


Communication Crisis in Sudan

There are concerns that communication services in Sudan might be cut off. An expert and former official in the Sudanese Communications Authority revealed that the Rapid Support Forces have ordered two major communication companies, Sudanese and MTN, to disconnect communication and internet services for 36 million subscribers in the country. This decision was made because Sudatel, another company, was unable to maintain the fiber optic network cable for Darfur due to the ongoing war. As a result, several states in Darfur have lost access to telecommunications and the internet.

Control Over Communication Servers

The former official also mentioned that the Rapid Support Forces have control over the areas where the main servers of the two communication companies are located. This poses a bigger problem than just interrupted communication and internet services. It could also affect banking applications, as the main servers could be closed or sabotaged, making it difficult to operate them again. If this happens, Sudan might be completely cut off from the rest of the world for a long time.

Challenges Faced by Telecommunication Companies

Workers in telecommunication companies in Sudan have reported security and logistical problems that have led to the suspension of two major companies in the country. Additionally, entire states have lost coverage and are unable to access telecommunication and internet services.

A Dangerous Development

The former official also expressed concern that the largest operator in Sudan, Zain, might join the South African companies, Sudani and MTN. This would be a dangerous development in the ongoing war and a clear violation of human rights.

The Conflict in Sudan

Since mid-April 2023, the Sudanese army, led by President Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, and the Rapid Support Forces, led by Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo (Hemedti), have been engaged in a war. This conflict has resulted in more than 13,000 deaths and over 7 million people being displaced as refugees, according to the United Nations.

Source: Al Jazeera


Details of the Deal

Israeli Channel 12 recently revealed some information about a potential exchange deal between Hamas and Israel. The deal, which is still being discussed, would involve the release of 35 Israeli detainees in the Gaza Strip, including women, the wounded, and the elderly. In return, there would be a truce for 35 days. After that, negotiations would continue for the release of more detainees, including young people and those whom Hamas considers to be soldiers.

Concerns about the Deal

The main concern on the Israeli side is not just the number of prisoners that would be released, but also their quality. Releasing a large number of prisoners who were involved in attacks against Israelis would be difficult for the public and politicians to accept.

Hamas' Response

The ball is now in Hamas' court. Mediators have presented the main points of the deal to Hamas, and they are waiting for a response. Ismail Haniyeh, the head of the Hamas Political Bureau, announced that they have received the proposal and are studying it.

The Prisoners Hamas Wants Released

Hamas insists that the deal includes three specific Palestinian prisoners. One of them is Marwan Barghouti, a leader in the Fatah movement who is considered a popular figure in Palestinian society. The second is Ahmed Saadat, the Secretary-General of the Popular Front. The third is Abdullah Barghouti, a member of Hamas and a leader of their military wing in the West Bank.

Netanyahu's Position

Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu has made it clear that he is willing to negotiate a new prisoner exchange deal, but there are red lines that cannot be crossed. He will not agree to stop the war, withdraw army forces from Gaza, or release thousands of Palestinian prisoners. Netanyahu wants to ensure the safety of Israel and eliminate the threat posed by Hamas.

Fears and Concerns

Some officials are worried that Netanyahu's strong statements may push Hamas to reject the deal. They fear that his words might encourage Hamas to take a harder stance and undermine the negotiations. This could allow Israel to continue fighting while blaming Hamas for the failure of the talks.

The Prisoner Situation

Currently, Israel estimates that there are around 136 Israeli prisoners in Gaza. On the other hand, they hold approximately 8,800 Palestinians in their prisons.

Source: Agencies