10 Key Principles Governing the Islamic Economy Featured

By Gamal Khattab February 15, 2024 810


 In the Islamic faith, economic principles are not just about making money; they are centered on ethics, social justice, and the greater good of society. The Islamic economy is guided key principles that govern financial transactions and business practices. These principles encompass various aspects, such as belief in the oneness of God, prohibition of usury, justice, charity, and the concept of permissible and forbidden. Here are 10 of these principles:

  1. Tawhid: Oneness of God

Tawhid, the belief in the oneness of God, is the foundation of the Islamic economy. Muslims believe that all wealth and resources belong to Allah, and humans are accountable for how they utilize and distribute these resources. This principle emphasizes that economic activities should be conducted in a manner that aligns with the teachings of Islam. Honesty, integrity, and fair dealings are essential when engaging in any economic transactions.

  1. Riba: Prohibition of Usury

One of the fundamental principles in Islamic finance is the prohibition of usury, known as riba. Riba refers to the charging or payment of interest on loans or debts. Instead, Islamic finance promotes profit-sharing arrangements, where parties invest capital together and share the profits or losses. This principle ensures that wealth is not accumulated through exploitative lending practices, thus promoting social justice and equitable distribution of resources.

  • Gharar: Uncertainty

The concept of gharar refers to uncertainty or ambiguity in a contract. Islamic finance discourages contractual arrangements with excessive ambiguity or uncertainty, as it may lead to exploitation and unfairness. Contracts should be transparent and include clear terms and conditions, ensuring that all parties have a reasonable understanding of the transaction. This principle promotes trust and fairness in economic dealings.

  1. Adl: Justice

Justice is a critical principle governing the Islamic economy. Fairness and equality are essential when conducting business transactions. Economic activities should not lead to exploitation or create unjust disparities in wealth distribution. Islamic finance emphasizes the need for businesses to provide fair wages, safe working conditions, and equal opportunities for all individuals. This principle aims to create an inclusive economy that benefits society as a whole.

  1. Qisas: Retribution in Kind

Qisas, meaning retribution in kind, is a principle that seeks justice and accountability. It emphasizes the importance of holding individuals accountable for their actions, particularly in cases of harm or injury caused. In the Islamic economy, individuals who engage in fraudulent or unethical practices should be held responsible for their actions. This principle promotes a sense of trust and deterrence within the economic system.

  1. Zakah: Obligatory Charity

Zakah is the obligatory act of charity in Islam. It requires individuals to contribute a portion of their wealth to help the poor and needy. This principle promotes social solidarity and wealth redistribution, ensuring that wealth does not become concentrated in the hands of a few. Zakah acts as a safety net for society, providing assistance to those in need and promoting a more equitable distribution of resources.

  • Sadaqah: Voluntary Charity

In addition to zakah, Islam encourages voluntary acts of charity known as sadaqah. Sadaqah allows individuals to go beyond their obligations and extend support to various charitable causes. This principle promotes compassion, empathy, and generosity within the economic system. It also encourages individuals to actively contribute to the welfare of society and uplift those in disadvantaged positions.

  • Waqf: Endowment

Waqf, the concept of endowment, plays a significant role in the Islamic economy. It involves dedicating specific assets or properties to be used for charitable purposes. Waqf assets, such as land, buildings, or funds, are held in perpetuity and the generated income is used for charitable causes. This principle ensures the continued provision of public goods and services, fostering sustainable development and social well-being.

  1. Israf: Wastefulness

The principle of Israf (Wastefulness) highlights the importance of avoiding wastefulness and extravagance. Islamic teachings discourage excessive consumption or the utilization of resources beyond what is necessary. Effective resource management, conservation, and environmental sustainability are emphasized. This principle promotes responsible economic practices that preserve and protect the environment for future generations.

  1. Halal and Haram: Permissible and Forbidden

The concept of halal and haram outlines what is permissible and forbidden in the Islamic economy. Certain activities, such as gambling, alcohol, pork, and unethical business practices, are considered haram (forbidden). On the other hand, activities that align with ethical and moral values are considered halal (permissible). Islamic permissible and forbidden (Halal and Haram) principles guide individuals and businesses to engage in economic activities that are in line with Islamic principles and values.

These are some of the key principles governing the Islamic economy provide a comprehensive framework that emphasizes ethics, social justice, and the greater good of society. These principles guide individuals and businesses to conduct economic activities in a manner that promotes fairness, compassion, and equitable wealth distribution. By adhering to these principles, the Islamic economy aims to create a harmonious economic system where individuals can thrive while contributing to the welfare of society.