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The Quran is the backbone of Islam
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The History of the Noble Quran

17:39 08 January 2017 Author :  

The Quran is the backbone of Islam. On this Sacred Book of Allah depends the Islamic call, state, society and the civilisation of the Muslim world. It is the last Divine revelation, which was sent down to Prophet Muhammad, sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, the last and final of all Prophets, may Allah exalt their mention. His task was to convey the message of worshipping the One God, Allah, without ascribing any partners to Him. The Noble Quran, which is the source of guidance and mercy to mankind, is divided into one hundred and fourteen (114) Soorahs (chapters) of varying lengths. Ninety-three chapters were revealed in Makkah, while the remaining twenty-one were revealed in Madeenah.

The first revelation that the Prophet, sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, received was Soorat Al-'Alaq, which was in Makkah where Soorat An-Najm was to later became the first to be recited openly to the people. In Madeenah, Soorat Al-Mutaffifeen was the first one revealed after the Hijrah (migration). The Prophet, sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, had to flee to Madeenah to save his own life and the lives of his followers, upon the command of Allah.

The last verse sent down to the Prophet, sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, was the saying of Allah which means: {…This day I have perfected for you your religion and completed My favour upon you and have approved for you Islam as religion...} [Quran 5:3]

Some chapters in the Quran focus on the call to Islam as guidance for humanity. They focus upon monotheism and the fight against polytheism and idolatry. Thus, stress is laid on all that is related to faith. In other chapters, attention is given to legislation, acts of worship, relationships among people and the laws that regulate matters within the Muslim community, government, and family.

A number of chapters inform about Resurrection, the Hereafter and the unseen; others relate the stories of various prophets and their calls to their people to return to Allah. We see how the previous nations were severely punished when they disobeyed Allah and denied the messages of previous prophets, may Allah exalt their mention.

In addition, several chapters focus on the story of creation and the development of human life. In fact, Makkan revelations made the Muslims' faith in Allah firmly established. On the other hand, Madeenan revelations were meant to translate the faith into action and give details of the Divine Law.

Allah will forever preserve the Quran against all attempts to destroy or corrupt it. Being guarded by Allah, it will always remain pure. There does not exist a single copy with any variation from the recognised text.

Any attempt of alteration has resulted in failure.

Upon the command of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam his Companions would write down what was revealed of the Noble Quran. They used, for this purpose, palm branches stripped of leaves, parchments, shoulder bones, stone tablets, etc. About forty people were involved in this task. Among them was Zayd Ibn Thaabit, may Allah be pleased with him, who showed his work to the Prophet, sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam. Thus, the Quran was correctly arranged during the Prophet’s life, but it was not yet compiled into one book. In the meantime, most of the Prophet’s Companions memorised the Quran.

When Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, became Caliph after the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam died, a large number of the Companions were killed during the War of Apostasy. 'Umar Ibn Al-Khattaab, may Allah be pleased with him, went to the Caliph and discussed the idea of compiling the Quran into one volume. He was disturbed, as most of those who memorised it had died. Then, Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, called for Zayd and commissioned him to collect the Quran into one book, which became known as the ‘Mus-haf.’

After Zayd, may Allah be pleased with him, accomplished this great task and organized the Quran into one book, he submitted the precious collection to Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, who kept it in his possession until the end of his life. During the caliphate of ‘Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, it was kept with his daughter Hafsah, may Allah be pleased with her, who was also a wife of the Prophet, sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam.

During the Caliphate of ‘Uthmaan, may Allah be pleased with him, Islam reached many countries, and readers began to recite the Quran in different ways (dialects). ‘Uthmaan, may Allah be pleased with him, then had various copies made and sent them out to the different Muslim lands, lest these dialects would cause alterations to the Quran, and kept the original copy with Hafsah, may Allah be pleased with her. Thus, the Quran remained preserved and the Caliph was very much pleased with his achievement.

Today, every copy of the Quran conforms with the standard copy of ‘Uthmaan, may Allah be pleased with him. In fact, Muslims over the ages excelled in producing the best manuscripts of the Noble Quran in the most wonderful handwriting. With the introduction of printing, more and more editions of the Noble Quran became available all over the world.

Islamweb

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